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Around 1430, the Court of Chancery in Westminster began using English in its official documents, and a new standard form of Middle English, known as Chancery Standard, developed from the dialects of London and the East Midlands. International Journal of Applied Linguistics. Possessive constructions: With -s: The woman's husband's child With of: The child of the husband of the woman Nouns can form noun phrases (NPs) where they are the syntactic head of the words that depend on them such as determiners, quantifiers, conjunctions or adjectives. 59 In modern English, the loss of grammatical case is almost complete (it is now only found in pronouns, such as he and him, she and her, who and whom and SVO word-order is mostly fixed. 60 Now, do-support with the verb have is becoming increasingly standardised.) The use of progressive forms in -ing, appears to be spreading to new constructions, and forms such as had been being built are becoming more common. Additionally, some new words and collocations have emerged from the language, which come from the need to express concepts specific to the culture of the nation (e.g. Due to its status as an international language, English adopts foreign words quickly, and borrows vocabulary from many other sources. Instead, they consider the construction simply to be a verb with a prepositional phrase as its syntactic complement,.e. The modern English alphabet contains 26 letters of the Latin script : a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w,. For example, in the question What did you see?, the word what appears as the first constituent despite being the grammatical object of the sentence. "Spelling Reform Proposals: English". A Handbook of Varieties of English: A Multimedia Reference Tool. Auxiliary verb constructions Main articles: Do-support and Subjectauxiliary inversion English syntax relies on auxiliary verbs for many functions including the expression of tense, aspect, and mood. 244 Traits that have spread from London in recent decades include the use of intrusive R ( drawing is pronounced drawring /drr t -glottalisation ( Potter is pronounced with a glottal stop as Po'er /po and the pronunciation.

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The Routledge handbook of world Englishes. There is no single sensible answer to this question. There are exceptions to these generalisations, often the result of loanwords being spelled according to the spelling patterns of their languages of origin or proposals by pedantic scholars in the early period of Modern English to mistakenly follow the. At the time of the Survey of English Dialects, grammar and vocabulary differed across the country, but a process of lexical attrition has led most of this variation to disappear. "Do You Speak American: What Lies Ahead". Fasold, Ralph.; Connor-Linton, Jeffrey, eds. The reflexive pronouns are used when the oblique argument is identical to the subject of a phrase (e.g. 92 But English is not a divided language, despite a long-standing joke originally attributed to George Bernard Shaw that the United Kingdom and the United States are "two countries separated by a common language". "2011 Census QuickStats: Australia". The English of neighbouring New Zealand has to a lesser degree become an influential standard variety of the language. Regularisation of irregular forms also slowly continues (e.g. Stressed syllables are pronounced longer and louder than unstressed syllables, and vowels in unstressed syllables are frequently reduced while vowels in stressed syllables are not.

arguments of verbs. Through the use of these complex sentence constructions with informationally vacuous subjects, English is able to maintain both a topic-comment sentence structure and a SVO syntax. GA /r/ and /r/ are realised as an r -coloured vowel, as in further f (phonemically /frr which in RP is realised as f (phonemically /f. In North America, a number of chain shifts such as the Northern Cities Vowel Shift and Canadian Shift have produced very different vowel landscapes in some regional accents. Vowels in unstressed syllables are shortened as well, and vowel shortening causes changes in vowel quality : vowel reduction. Vocabulary See also: Foreign language influences in English English is a rich language in terms of vocabulary, containing more synonyms than any other language. Many of these words had earlier been borrowed into Latin from Greek. The words in English learned first by children as they learn to speak, particularly the grammatical words that dominate the word count of both spoken and written texts, are mainly the Germanic words inherited from the earliest periods of the development of Old English. Discourse markers such as oh, so or well, also signal the progression of ideas between sentences and help to create cohesion. Lay off meaning terminate someone's employment ). Orthographically the possessive -s is separated from the noun root with an apostrophe. Regional variation Varieties of English vary the most in pronunciation of vowels. 112 113 David Crystal claimed in 2004 that, combining native and non-native speakers, India now has more people who speak or understand English than any other country in the world, but the number of English speakers in India is very. These four vowels are only distinguished in RP, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. English is spoken by communities on every continent and on islands in all the major oceans.


Compared to European languages for which official organisations have promoted spelling reforms, English has spelling that is a less consistent indicator of pronunciation, and standard spellings of words that are more difficult to guess from knowing how a word is pronounced. "List of languages by total number of speakers, Ethnologue 2019". Africa, the Caribbean, and South Asia See also: South African English, Nigerian English, Caribbean English, and Indian English English is spoken widely in South Africa and is an official or co-official language in several countries. It is named after the. Modern English does not allow the addition of the negating adverb not to an ordinary finite lexical verb, as in *I know not it can only be added to an auxiliary (or copular ) verb, hence if there. The most prominent varieties are Jamaican English and Jamaican Creole. Cohesion between sentences is achieved through the use of deictic pronouns as anaphora (e.g. (the idiomatic marker no way! The seven word classes are exemplified in this sample sentence: The chairman of the committee and the loquacious politician clashed violently when the meeting started. Countries with large communities of native speakers of English (the inner circle) include Britain, the United States, Australia, Canada, Ireland, and New Zealand, where the majority speaks English, and South Africa, where a significant minority speaks English. A burnout ( /brnat/ ) versus to burn out ( /brn at/ and a hotdog ( /htd/ ) versus a hot dog ( /ht d/ ). Ethnologue: Languages of the World. This has led some scholars to develop the study of English as an auxiliary language. Auxiliary verbs differ from other verbs in that they can be followed by the negation, and in that they can occur as the first constituent in a question sentence.